Pests Of Concern Not In BC

Blueberry Bud Mite

(Acalitus vaccinii): This mite is present in the Maritimes and Eastern US.
Damage: Blueberry buds develop red blisters at bud break. Flowers and berries are rough textured and also develop red blisters. Damage is most severe following mild winters.
Pest: The adult mite is clear to white and tiny, only 0.2 mm long. It has an elongated body and two pairs of legs near the head. Adult mites lay their eggs inside bud scales at the end of branches in the early spring. The young mites feed inside the buds until the buds open, then move down the stem to feed and reproduce in tighter buds. Adults, eggs and nymphs are present all year round.

Blueberry Bud Mite

 

Blueberry Maggot

(Rhagoletis mendax): This pest is widespread in the Maritimes and Eastern US, as well as some parts of Ontario and Quebec.
Damage: Maggots infest berries making them unmarketable.
Insect: Adults are black and grey flies, smaller than houseflies, approximately 5 mm long. Their clear wings have distinct black bands. Adult flies emerge in June and lay eggs just beneath the skin of developing berries. Larvae hatch and feed inside the berries. Maggots grow up to 8 mm in length and are milky white and legless. After 20 days, the maggots drop to pupate in the soil and overwinter.

Blueberry Maggot

Blueberry Maggot

Blueberry Maggot

 

Japanese Beetle

(Popillia japonica): This pest is widespread in US. In Canada, its distribution is limited to New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island and Quebec.
Damage: Adult beetles eat leaves, flowers, and fruit and can rapidly defoliate plants if present in high numbers. Larvae feed on plant roots. Beetles feed on foliage and can be a serious contaminant in harvested fruit.
Insect: Adult beetles are 13 mm long with a metallic green thorax and shiny, brown wing covers. The adults appear in early summer and are active for 6-8 weeks, particularly on warm, sunny days. Mating occurs soon after female emergence. Eggs are laid in the soil within 7-10 days. Larvae are milky white, C-shaped with three pairs of legs and are present in the soil. There is one generation per year.

Japanese Beetle

Japanese Beetle

 

Plum Curculio

(Conotrachelus nenuphar):
Damage: Berries are indented and have crescent shaped scars on the surface. Infested berries drop to the ground prematurely. Plum Curculio is a serious pest east of the Rocky Mountains in Canada and the United States.
Insect: Adults are small beetles, 4-6 mm long, with a narrow snout and plump, bumpy abdomen. They are mottled grey/ brown and black in colour. The adult overwinters in the leaf litter. They emerge in the spring and chew small holes into the surface of green berries in order to lay eggs. The white legless larvae are 5-7 mm long, with a brown head. The larvae develop inside the berry, causing the berry to drop to the ground prematurely.

Plum Curculio

 


 

Pests of concern for China Export Market

Common name Latin name In BC
Apple mussel scale or oystershell scale Lepidosaphes ulmi No
Blueberry maggot Rhagoletis mendax No
Cranberry Fruitworm Acrobasis vaccinii Yes
Cherry Fruitworm Grapholita packardi Yes
Fuller rose beetle Pantomorus cervinus No
Godronia Godronia cassandrae Yes
Mummyberry Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi Yes
Obscure mealybug Pseudococcus viburni=Naupactus viburni No
Pestalotia rot Pestalotia vaccinii Yes
Phomopsis Diaphorte vaccinii Yes
Plum curculio Conotrachelus nenuphar No
Spotted Wing Drosophila Drosophila suzukii Yes

 

Pests of concern for Korea Export Market

Common name Latin name In BC
Blueberry maggot Rhagoletis mendax No
Blueberry leaftier Croesia curvalana Yes
Blueberry leafroller Cheimophila salicella Yes
Cranberry Fruitworm Acrobasis vaccinii Yes
Cherry Fruitworm Grapholita packardi Yes
Europen leafroller Archips rosana Yes
Mummyberry Monilinia vaccinia-corymbosi Yes
Oblique-banded leafroller Choristoneura rosaceana Yes
Orange tortrix Argyrotaenia citrana Yes
Phyllosticta leaf spot/storage rot Phylosticta vaccinii No
Red-banded leafroller Argyrotaenia velutinana Yes
Scale insect Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis No
Three-lined leafroller Pandemis limitata Yes
Tobacco ringspot virus none No
Tomato ringspot virus none No
White-banded fruitfly Rhagoletis tabellaria Yes
White-triangle leafroller Clepsis persicana Yes

 

Present in BC but not in Blueberries


The Brown Marmorated Stink Bug

(Halyomorpha halys)
A native pest of Asia, was first identified in North America in Pennsylvania in 2001. It has since spread throughout the Mid-Atlantic States and is present in California, Oregon and Washington.
Damage: Both adults and nymphs feed by inserting their mouthparts into the flesh of fruit or vegetables. Feeding punctures result in small dead areas on fruit, vegetables and leaves. Stink bugs can be a contamination issue for grapes because the presence of a few adults at crush can taint wine.
Insect: The adults are brown, about 13 to 17 mm long, and can be distinguished from other brown stink bugs by the presence of distinctive white bands on the antennae and their tendency to cluster together in groups. Egg: Spherical, white or pale green, 1.6 x 1.3 mm; laid in clusters of 20 – 30 eggs on the underside of leaves. Immature (nymph): There are 5 immature stages ranging in size from 2.4 – 12 mm long. All nymphs are teardrop or pear-shaped. Nymphs do not have wings. 1st instar nymphs are bright orange to red in colour; Second instar nymphs are dark grey to black; later instars are dark grey to brown with white markings on abdomen and legs and white bands on last two antennal segments.

stink-bug

The Brown Marmorated Stink Bug


 

Diseases Of Concern Not In BC

Blueberry Leaf Mottle

(Blueberry leaf mottle virus – BLMV)
Damage: Leaves are mottled and may be malformed or strap-like. The top of bushes die back with weak regrowth occurring only at the crown.
Disease: BLMV is spread by pollen and carried by bees. It is present in Michigan.
blmv

 

Blueberry Red Ringspot

(Blueberry red ringspot virus – BRRV)
Damage: Circular red rings or blotches, 4-6 mm in diameter, develop on one-year-old and older stems. Older leaves develop reddish brown circular spots, 3-5 mm in diameter, in mid to late summer.
Disease: The disease is caused by BRRV and it is not known how it spreads. It is present at low incidence in Oregon and the Eastern US. ‘Bluecrop’ is resistant to this disease.
brrv

 

Blueberry Shoestring

(Blueberry shoestring virus – BSSV)
Damage: New and one-year-old stems show red streaks, 3-20 mm long, more on the side of the stem exposed to the sun. Leaves are elongated and strap-like (shoestring appearance), and may be reddish in colour. Blossoms have reddish streaks. Berries are reddish purple instead of blue. Yield is reduced.
Disease: BSSV is spread by the blueberry aphid, Illinoia pepperii, which is not present in BC. The virus has a latency period of 4 years before infected bushes show symptoms.
bssv

 

Blueberry Stunt

Damage: Bushes are severely stunted and bushy. Leaves may be spoon-shaped or cupped downward with chlorotic margins and chlorosis between the veins. Chlorotic areas turn bright red in late summer. Yield is reduced.
Disease: This disease is caused by a phytoplasma and is spread by leafhoppers. It is present in Eastern Canada and the Eastern US.
blueberry-stunt

 

Necrotic Ringspot

(Tobacco ringspot virus – TRSV)
Damage: Symptoms vary among cultivars. Leaves may be small, misshapen, crinkled and have small necrotic spots, 2-5 mm in diameter. Young twigs may have small brown necrotic patches. Yield is reduced. Symptoms are similar to those of ToRSV.
Disease: TRSV is spread by dagger nematodes (Xiphinema spp.) from infected to healthy roots in the soil. It causes plant decline in Oregon and the Eastern US.

 

Tomato Ringspot

(Tomato ringspot virus – ToRSV)
Damage: Leaves are cupped and misshapen or elongated and have pale yellow or brown circular spots of 2-5 mm in diameter. Stems may have brown, circular spots of 2-5 mm in diameter. Some shoots may appear normal, others may have misshapen leaves. An infected bush can be completely defoliated.
Disease: ToRSV is spread by dagger nematodes (Xiphinema spp.) from infected to healthy roots in the soil. The virus spreads slowly, causing plant decline in expanding circular patches in the field. It is present in Washington, Oregon and Michigan. It has been detected in BC on raspberries but not on blueberries.

 

Blueberry Virus Surveillance