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Mummy Berry

Mummy Berry

(Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi)
Symptoms: Individual leaf and flower clusters turn brown and droop. A bluish-grey fuzz is visible on the petiole or flower stem. Infected berries become pink and puckered, then turn hard, white, and shrivelled and drop to the ground late in the season.
Disease cycle: This fungus over- winters in infected berries (mummy berries) that fell to the ground the previous season. Primary infection occurs when spores (ascospores) are released from the sprouting apothecia (fruiting structures of the pathogen) from mummy berries in early spring and blown onto new flower and leaf buds. Secondary infection occurs when bees carry the secondary spores (conidia) from primary infections to open blossoms.

Mummy Berry AphoteciaCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Mummy Berry AphoteciaCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Mummy Berry AphoteciaCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Mummy Berry Fruit Infected LeafCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Mummy Berry Leaf InfectionCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Mummy Berry Leaf InfectionCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Mummy Berry Leaf InfectionCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Mummy Berry Leaf InfectionCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Mummy Berry Flower InfectionCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Mummy Fruit InfectionCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Mummy Berry Fruit InfectionCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Mummy Berry Fruit InfectionCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Mummy Berry Fruit InfectionCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Godronia Canker

Godronia Canker

Godronia cassandrae ( Fusicoccum putrefaciens).
Damage: Small (2-7cm), reddish brown, oval-shaped lesions develop on one-year-old stems, usually at the base of a bud. Older infections girdle stems and die, and the leaves turn reddish-brown, mostly attached to the stem e, giving a “flagging” appearance. Lesions may take 1-3 years to fully girdle and kill individual branches
Disease cycle: This fungus over- winters on canker lesions on stems. Spores are released from young canker lesions during cool, wet weather in the spring but mostly in the fall and cause new infections.

Godronia Canker Young LesionsSiva Sabaratnam, BCAGRI

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Godronia CankerCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Godronia Canker Old LesionsSiva Sabaratnam, BCAGRI

Godronia Canker FlaggingCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Godronia FlaggingCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Godronia Canker In A Duke FieldSiva Sabaratnam, BCAGRI

 

 

 

Crown Gall

Crown Gall

(Agrobacterium tumefaciens)
Damage: Hard, tumour-like growths are present on the roots, crown, or stems. Individual branches or entire plant may be killed.
Disease cycle: Crown gall is caused by a bacterium that enters the plant through wounds. The disease can be spread by infected pruning shears, farm equipment or plant wounds.

Crown Gall On Blueberry RootsSiva Sabaratnam, BCAGRI

Crown GallSiva Sabaratnam, BCAGRI

Botrytis Blight and Fruit Rot

Botrytis Blight and Fruit Rot

(Botrytis cinerea)
Symptoms: Infected twigs turn silvery and brittle. Infected flowers wilt, turn brown and develop a grey fuzzy mould on the surface. Green berries develop small, soft, purple patches. Ripe berries become soft and develop grey mould on the surface. Symptoms on flowers and berries are present all season, particularly following periods of cool rainy weather. Symptoms on twigs are present year round.
Disease cycle: The fungus overwinters on dead branch tips and debris on the ground. Spores are released in cool, wet weather and are carried by the wind. The fungus may remain latent on the berries until ripening.

Botrytis Twig BlightSiva Sabaratnam, BCAGRI.

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Botrytis Blossom RotCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

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Botrytis Blossom RotCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

4-botrytis

Botrytis Fruit RotCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

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Botrytis Fruit RotCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

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Botrytis Fruit RotCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

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Botrytis Fruit RotCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

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Botrytis Fruit RotCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Bacterial Blight

Bacterial Blight.

(Pseudomonas syringae pv syringae)
Damage: Symptoms appear from bud break to bloom. Brownish-black discoloration appears on one-year-old stems, often near branch tips. Buds and flower clusters within or adjacent to the infected stem turn brown and die. There is a distinct margin between diseased and healthy tissue on the stem.
Disease cycle: This bacterial disease is very common and spreads under cool, wet weather in the spring and fall. It often becomes severe on plants that have been damaged by frost.

Bacterial BlightCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Bacterial BlightCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Bacterial BlightSiva Sabaratnam, BCAGRI

Bacterial BlightSiva Sabaratnam, BCAGRI

 

 

Blueberry Leaf Rust

Blueberry Leaf Rust

(Naohidemyces vaccinia)
Symptoms: Appear in late summer. Brown spots on the upper surface of leaves. Powdery orange-yellow pustules on the underside of leaves. May caused early defoliation.
Disease cycle: In northern climates, Blueberry leaf rust uses hemlock as its alternative host. With the Fraser Valley’s warm climate, the disease might not need hemlock to complete its life cycle.

Blueberry Leaf Rust

Blueberry Leaf Rust

Blueberry Leaf Rust

 

 

Anthracnose

Anthracnose Fruit Rot

(Colletotrichum acutatum.)
Symptoms: Symptoms appear on ripe and overripe berries. Ripe berries develop a soft, sunken area near the calyx (flower-end) of the berry. Masses of orange spores are visible on the sunken areas of the berry.
Disease: This fungus over- winters on live twigs, flower buds, dead twigs and debris on the ground. Spores are released during warm, wet weather, and spread by splashing rain onto blossoms and green berries. Infections on young berries remain latent until fruit ripening.

Anthracnose Fruit Rot Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Anthracnose Fruit Rot Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Anthracnose Fruit Rot Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Anthracnose Fruit Rot Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Anthracnose Fruit Rot Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Anthracnose Fruit Rot Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Alternaria Fruit Rot

Alternaria Leaf Spot and Fruit Rot

(Alternaria spp.)
Symptoms: Leaf spot symptoms appear from March to May. Leaf spots are 1-5 mm wide, grey with a red margin. Fruit rot symptoms appear during fruit ripening. Infected berries become soft and develop a greenish-black mould on the surface.
Disease cycle: This fungus over-winters on twigs of dead branches and debris on the ground. Spores are released during cool, wet weather and are carried by the wind.

Alternaria Fruit Rot Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Alternaria Fruit Rot Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Alternaria Fruit Rot Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Alternaria Leaf Spot and Fruit Rot Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Caterpillars – Leaf Feeding

Bruce Spanworm and Winter Moth

(Operophtera bruceata & O. brumata)
Damage: Caterpillars feed in early spring on flower clusters, green berries and leaves.
Insect: Pale green caterpillars up to 18 mm long with two pale lines running the length of their body, with a pale green head. Moths fly in late fall and winter and lay eggs on blueberry plants. Larvae hatch in March and begin feeding inside buds and flower clusters until late May. They drop to the soil to pupate in June, where they remain until moth emergence after October. There is one generation per year.

Oblique Banded Leafroller

(Choristoneura rosaceana)
Damage: Caterpillars feed in early spring and mid-summer on flower clusters, green berries and leaves.
Insect: Small caterpillars overwinter on plants and begin to feed in early April inside rolled leaves or webbed flower clusters. Caterpillars are also present in July-August. Caterpillars grow to 25 mm in length, are pale green with black heads, and stay close to their protective leaf rolls when feeding. Larvae pupate within the leaf rolls, and tan coloured moths emerge in June and again in August. They can be seen fluttering around the bushes or resting on leaves. There are two generations per year.

Eye-spotted Budmoth

(Spilonota ocellana)
Damage: Caterpillars feed in early spring on buds, flower clusters, green berries, and leaves.
Insect: A dark brown caterpillar with a black head, 9 to 14 mm long. From March to May, caterpillars are found feeding inside flower clusters and leaves secured with webbing. Moths fly in June-July. Summer larvae feed on leaves and developing fruit from July to September, before overwintering as partially grown larvae. One generation per year.

European Leafroller

(Archips rosanus)
Damage: Caterpillars feed on flowers and developing fruit and leaves in spring.
Insect: Similar size and appearance as Oblique banded leafroller (OBLR), but European leafroller has only one generation per year whereas OBLR has two generations. European leafroller larvae appear later in the summer than OBLR. Moths fly in June-July and lay overwintering egg masses.

Leaf Feeding CaterpillarCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding CaterpillarCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding CaterpillarCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding CaterpillarCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding CaterpillarCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding CaterpillarCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding CaterpillarCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding CaterpillarCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding CaterpillarCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding CaterpillarCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding Caterpillar PupaCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding Caterpillar PupaCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding Caterpillar MothCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding Caterpillar DamageCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding Caterpillar DamageCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Caterpillars – Tent Forming

Forest and Western Tent Caterpillars

(Malacosoma disstria & M. californicum)
Damage: Fully enclosed tents or silken mats are built from May to June by groups of hundreds of caterpillars. Entire branches or bushes can be defoliated.
Insect: Tent caterpillars are covered in long hairs and grow up to 30 mm long. Both species have significant markings such as blue lines and white diamonds along the back of Forest Tent Caterpillars. Western tent caterpillars are mostly orange and black with pale blue marks along the back. Tent caterpillars feed together in large groups until pupation in mid- summer. Moths are tan coloured, fly in summer, and lay overwintering egg masses on tree branches. Egg masses are protected by grey-black spongy material, which looks and feels like grey Styrofoam. One generation per year.

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Forest and Western Tent Caterpillars Tracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI

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Forest and Western Tent Caterpillars Tracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI


Fall Webworm

(Hyphantria cunea)
Damage: Small webbed tents appear at branch tips in early July. These tents contain hundreds of caterpillars. The tents and caterpillars grow in size and can encompass an entire bush by September. Entire branches are defoliated inside the webbing.
Insect: Caterpillars are commonly light coloured with long pale hairs. Caterpillars have black spots and dark heads, and the larvae body may darken with age. Larvae grow up to 35 mm in length. Moths are mostly pure white, and fly in early summer. They lay egg masses on the underside of leaves and cover with hairs. Eggs hatch within a week. Once larvae are mature, they crawl to protected areas on the tree or in leaf litter, to overwinter as a pupae. One generation per year.

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Fall WebwormCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

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Fall WebwormCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

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Fall WebwormCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

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Fall WebwormCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult