Aphid Midges

(Aphidoletes aphidimyza)
Insect: Adults are delicate flies, 2-3 mm in length. They are nocturnal and rarely seen. They feed on aphid honeydew and lay their eggs near aphid colonies. Larvae are 2-3 mm long, yellow to bright orange and legless. They feed on aphids by piercing them with their mouthparts and sucking out aphid body fluids. Larvae feed for 1-2 weeks, and then drop to the soil to pupate.
Role: Biological control of aphids.

Aphid Midges 1

Aphid MidgesCarolyn Teasdale, BCAGRI


Aphid Parasitoids

(Braconidae, Aphidius spp. and Praon spp.)
Insect: Adults are black, 3-8 mm in length, stout-bodied wasps with long antennae. They lay individual eggs within aphids. Parasitized aphids are referred to as ’mummies’ and appear white or tan, swollen and papery, and remain attached to the leaf. The wasp takes one week to mature and then cuts a small hole in the shell and emerges as an adult.
Role: Biological control of aphids.

Aphid ParasitoidsCarolyn Teasdale, BCAGRI


Caterpillar Parasitoids

(Wasps (Hymenoptera) in the Families Braconidae and Ichneumonidae, and Flies (Diptera) in the family Tachinidae)
Insect: Adults are brown, black or red, slender bodied wasps, 5-35 mm in length. Females have a long, needle-like ovipositor protruding from the end of their abdomen which is used to lay their eggs inside a caterpillar host. Eggs hatch into larvae which feed on the caterpillar. Once the wasp larvae have completed their growth, they exit the dead or dying caterpillar larvae and pupate. Some parasitoids are present in groups inside caterpillar hosts and some are solitary.
Flies: (Diptera): Adults look like house flies, and lay eggs on the outside of caterpillars. Eggs hatch and larvae burrow in and kill the caterpillar or pupae.
Role: Biological control of various species of caterpillars.

Caterpillar Parasitoids. Fly eggs attached to the head of larva.


Green and Brown Lacewings

(Chrysopidae and Hemerobiidae)
Insect: Adults are 10-20 mm long, pale green or brown, with a slender body and lacy, transparent wings. Eggs are pale green or white, 1 mm long and laid individually at the end of a 2-5 mm long slender stalk. Larvae are 6-10 mm long, slender, brown and white with significant ‘pincers’ protruding from their heads. Larvae can consume 20 to 200 aphids per day. Aphids are preferred, but lacewings will also feed on spider mites, leafhoppers, thrips, psyllids and small caterpillars. At least three species contribute to biocontrol in berry crops in BC: two green lacewings and one brown lacewing. The brown lacewing is smaller in size and is less common in blueberries than green lacewings. Lacewings overwinter as pupae or adults depending on the species.
Role: Biological control of aphids, mites and other soft-bodied insects.

Green LacewingCarolyn Teasdale, BCAGRI

Lacewing EggCarolyn Teasdale, BCAGRI

Lacewing LarvaCarolyn Teasdale, BCAGRI


Ladybird Beetles

Insect: Adults are 6-10 mm long, oval, orange or red with a variable number of black spots on their back. Eggs are 1-2 mm high, bright orange, oval shaped, and stand in upright clusters of 10-50 eggs. Larvae are 5-8 mm long and multi-coloured: black, blue, orange, or white. Pupae are orange and black and papery in appearance and attached to a leaf or stem in a C-shape. Larvae feed on up to 50 aphids per day. Adults consume over 2400 aphids in their 1-2 month lifespan. Several species occur in BC.
Role: Biological control of aphids and other soft- bodied insects.

Ladybird Beetle Larva EggsCarolyn Teasdale, BCAGRI

Ladybird Beetle PupatingCarolyn Teasdale, BCAGRI

Ladybird Beetle AdultCarolyn Teasdale, BCAGRI


Syrphid Flies

Insect: Adult flies are 6-13 mm long, have yellow and black abdominal stripes and resemble honeybees, but are smaller and are not hairy. They can hover when they fly. Eggs are white, oval, 1-2 mm in length, laid individually and lie flat on the underside of leaves near aphid colonies. Larvae are 4-8 mm long, pale yellow, translucent, and legless. They feed by piercing aphids with mouthparts and sucking aphid body fluids. Larvae can consume up to 100 aphids per day. Pupation occurs on host plants. Adults are pollinators and feed on pollen, nectar and honeydew from aphid colonies.
Role: Biological control of aphids by syrphid larvae. Pollination by syrphid adults.

Syrphid EggCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult.

Syrphid LarvaCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult.

Syrphid LarvaCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult.

Syrphid AdultCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult.



Bumble Bees, Apidae

Bombus spp.
Insect: Bumble bees are stout- bodied, hairy, and black with yellow or orange markings. They are larger and rounder than honey bees. They build their nests in the ground, in ditch banks and undisturbed areas. The mated female queen overwinters in the nest, then rears a new brood of sterile female worker bees in the early spring. These worker bees gather pollen to enlarge the nest. In late August, male bees and new queen bees are produced. After mating, the males die, while the queens over-winter. Bumble bees are more active than honey bees in poor weather and work longer hours during the day. They have long tongues that allow them to effectively pollinate deep, narrow blueberry flowers.
Role: Pollinators of blueberry flowers.


Bumble BeeCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult


Bumble BeeCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult


Mason Bees, Megachilidae

Osmia spp.
Insect: Mason bees are black or blue and hairy. Adults are 12-14 mm long and resemble large flies. Adults are solitary bees which emerge in April and feed on nectar and pollen. They lay their eggs inside nests built in small tunnels of wood or tubes. Larvae hatch and feed until August and then pupate and overwinter in the nest. Mason bees are more active than honey bees in poor weather conditions.
Role: Pollinators of blueberry flowers.


Honey BeeCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult.


Honey BeeCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult


Honey BeeKarina Sakalauskas, BCBC


Mason BeeDan Gemmell