Caterpillars – Leaf Feeding

Bruce Spanworm and Winter Moth

(Operophtera bruceata & O. brumata)
Damage: Caterpillars feed in early spring on flower clusters, green berries and leaves.
Insect: Pale green caterpillars up to 18 mm long with two pale lines running the length of their body, with a pale green head. Moths fly in late fall and winter and lay eggs on blueberry plants. Larvae hatch in March and begin feeding inside buds and flower clusters until late May. They drop to the soil to pupate in June, where they remain until moth emergence after October. There is one generation per year.

Oblique Banded Leafroller

(Choristoneura rosaceana)
Damage: Caterpillars feed in early spring and mid-summer on flower clusters, green berries and leaves.
Insect: Small caterpillars overwinter on plants and begin to feed in early April inside rolled leaves or webbed flower clusters. Caterpillars are also present in July-August. Caterpillars grow to 25 mm in length, are pale green with black heads, and stay close to their protective leaf rolls when feeding. Larvae pupate within the leaf rolls, and tan coloured moths emerge in June and again in August. They can be seen fluttering around the bushes or resting on leaves. There are two generations per year.

Eye-spotted Budmoth

(Spilonota ocellana)
Damage: Caterpillars feed in early spring on buds, flower clusters, green berries, and leaves.
Insect: A dark brown caterpillar with a black head, 9 to 14 mm long. From March to May, caterpillars are found feeding inside flower clusters and leaves secured with webbing. Moths fly in June-July. Summer larvae feed on leaves and developing fruit from July to September, before overwintering as partially grown larvae. One generation per year.

European Leafroller

(Archips rosanus)
Damage: Caterpillars feed on flowers and developing fruit and leaves in spring.
Insect: Similar size and appearance as Oblique banded leafroller (OBLR), but European leafroller has only one generation per year whereas OBLR has two generations. European leafroller larvae appear later in the summer than OBLR. Moths fly in June-July and lay overwintering egg masses.

Leaf Feeding CaterpillarCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding CaterpillarCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding CaterpillarCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding CaterpillarCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding CaterpillarCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding CaterpillarCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding CaterpillarCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding CaterpillarCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding CaterpillarCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding CaterpillarCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding Caterpillar PupaCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding Caterpillar PupaCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding Caterpillar MothCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding Caterpillar DamageCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding Caterpillar DamageCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Caterpillars – Tent Forming

Forest and Western Tent Caterpillars

(Malacosoma disstria & M. californicum)
Damage: Fully enclosed tents or silken mats are built from May to June by groups of hundreds of caterpillars. Entire branches or bushes can be defoliated.
Insect: Tent caterpillars are covered in long hairs and grow up to 30 mm long. Both species have significant markings such as blue lines and white diamonds along the back of Forest Tent Caterpillars. Western tent caterpillars are mostly orange and black with pale blue marks along the back. Tent caterpillars feed together in large groups until pupation in mid- summer. Moths are tan coloured, fly in summer, and lay overwintering egg masses on tree branches. Egg masses are protected by grey-black spongy material, which looks and feels like grey Styrofoam. One generation per year.

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Forest and Western Tent Caterpillars Tracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI

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Forest and Western Tent Caterpillars Tracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI


Fall Webworm

(Hyphantria cunea)
Damage: Small webbed tents appear at branch tips in early July. These tents contain hundreds of caterpillars. The tents and caterpillars grow in size and can encompass an entire bush by September. Entire branches are defoliated inside the webbing.
Insect: Caterpillars are commonly light coloured with long pale hairs. Caterpillars have black spots and dark heads, and the larvae body may darken with age. Larvae grow up to 35 mm in length. Moths are mostly pure white, and fly in early summer. They lay egg masses on the underside of leaves and cover with hairs. Eggs hatch within a week. Once larvae are mature, they crawl to protected areas on the tree or in leaf litter, to overwinter as a pupae. One generation per year.

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Fall WebwormCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

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Fall WebwormCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

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Fall WebwormCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

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Fall WebwormCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Vertebrate Pests

Bird Damage

(European Starlings, American Robin, Cedar Waxwing, Crows and other)
Birds (European Starlings, American Robin, Cedar Waxwing, Crows and Others)
Damage: Berries have wedge- shaped punctures with sections of internal flesh missing.

Bird DamageMark Sweeney

Bird DamageCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Bird DamageCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult


Vole Damage

(Microtus townsendii)
Voles (Field Mice)
Damage: Voles feed on roots and crowns. Bushes are weakened and may appear stressed for water or nutrients. Young plants may die. Holes and tunnels in the soil within the row are the most visible sign of rodent activity.
Pest: Voles are rarely seen. They are dark brown, have short legs, a short tail, a rounded head and small ears and eyes.

Townsends VoleDoug Ransome, BCIT

Townsends VoleDoug Ransome, BCIT

Vole Runways and HolesDoug Ransome, BCIT

Vole RunwaysDoug Ransome, BCIT

Vole HoleDoug Ransome, BCIT

Vole HoleDoug Ransome, BCIT

Vole HoleDoug Ransome, BCIT

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Vole DamageDoug Ransome, BCIT

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Vole DamageDoug Ransome, BCIT

Vole GrindingDoug Ransome, BCIT

Vole Tunnel In RootsDoug Ransome, BCIT

Weevils

Clay Coloured Weevil

(Otiorhynchus singularis)

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Clay Coloured WeevilCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult.


Green Immigrant Leaf Weevil

(Polydrusus sericeus)

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Green Immigrant Leaf WeevilCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult.


Strawberry Root Weevil

(Otiorhynchus ovatus)

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Strawberry Root WeevilJim Troubridge, AAFC


Rough Strawberry Root Weevil

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Rough Strawberry WeevilCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult.

(Otiorhynchus rugosostriatus)


Black Vine Weevil

(Otiorhynchus sulcatus)

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Black Vine WeevilCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult.

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Adult Black Vine WeevilJim Troubridge, AAFC


Obscure Weevil

(Sciopithes obscurus)

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Obscure WeevilCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult.


Damage: Larvae feed and girdle the roots and crown causing mature plants to decline. Young plants may be killed. Adult weevils feed on foliage resulting in ‘notching’, however, this does not usually affect the plant.
Insect: Adult weevils are wingless and have narrow snouts. They range in size from 5-12 mm, depending on species. Black vine weevil adults are the largest and can be up to 12 mm long. Rough strawberry root weevils are 8-10 mm long. Clay coloured and Obscure weevils are 7-9 mm long. The smallest is the Strawberry root weevil at 5-7 mm long. Each species is distinctly coloured. Green immigrant leaf weevil is shiny green and can fly.
Adult weevils climb the bushes to feed at night. During the day they rest near the soil surface and will play dead when disturbed. Clay coloured weevil adults chew buds, strip bark and girdle one year old wood from March to May. Leaf notching from June to September is normally caused by Black vine and Obscure weevil adults. Strawberry and Rough strawberry weevils tend to be more active in spring and fall, and remain protected in the soil during the hot summer months. Adult of Green immigrant leaf weevil make small feeding notches on newer leaves both high and low on the plant, and are active in fields during the day and evening. Larvae are up to 12 mm long, white with tan heads, and are found near the crown or roots of blueberry bushes. Larvae do not have legs, but are somewhat mobile in soil. Larvae hatch from July-September and spend the winter in the soil. Eggs are laid from spring to fall, with the peak occurring July-August.

Weevil Damage on TwigCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Weevil Damage on Bud.Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Weevil Notching on Leaf.Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

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Weevil Notching on Leaf.Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Weevil Notching on Leaf.Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Weevil Notching on Leaf.Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

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Weevil Notching on Leaf.Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Weevil Larva.Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Weevil Larva.Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Weevil damage on roots. Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult.

Weevil damage on roots. Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult.

Root decline caused by weevils.Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Plant decline caused by weevils.Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Plant decline caused by weevils.Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Slugs & Snails

Slugs and Snails

Damage: Slugs and snails leave slime trails on leaves and fruit. They may become a contaminant in machine harvested fruit.
Insect: Slugs are slimy, legless, slow-moving mollusks of varying colours and sizes up to 10 cm long. Snails are similar in description, but have a protective shell.
NOTE: No common pest in blueberries

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Snail

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Slug

Scales & Mealybugs

Lecanium Scale

(Parthenolecanium spp.)
Damage: Scale insects suck on plant sap and can weaken plants and cause twig dieback. Sticky honeydew is secreted from scale insects and may drip onto fruit and leaves. Black sooty mould can develop on the honeydew.
Insect: Females appear as 2-5 mm, oval-shaped, brown bumps attached to one year old stems. Males are small, fly-like insects and are rarely seen. White eggs are present in May-June underneath the scales. Eggs hatch into crawlers (nymphs) that move to the leaves to feed. In late summer, nymphs move back to the stems to overwinter.

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Scale InsectsCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

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Scale InsectsK. Sakalauskas, BCBC


Grape Mealybug

(Pseudococcus maritimus)
Damage: Mealybugs suck plant sap and reduce plant vigour and terminal growth. They also secrete honeydew, which promotes the growth of sooty moulds that can make fruit unsuitable for the fresh market.
Insect: Adults can be up to 5 mm long, flat, oval shaped, and have a white waxy covering with wax filaments sticking out from circumference of the body. Longer filaments from the posterior end make these mealybugs appear to have “tails”.
NOTE: No common pest in blueberries

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MealybugTracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI

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Mealybug Black Sooty MouldTracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI

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MealybugKarina Sakalauskas, BCBC

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MealybugKarina Sakalauskas, BCBC

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MealybugKarina Sakalauskas, BCBC

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MealybugTracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI

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MealybugTracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI

Tentiform Leafminers

Tentiform Leafminer

(Phyllonorycter spp.)
Damage: Leafminer larvae create transparent blotches or serpentine line patterns on the underside of leaves. The leaf surface appears bubbled. Leafminers are rarely seen in blueberry fields.
Insect: Pale yellow caterpillars feed and tunnel between the layers of the leaf. Leafminer damage can occur throughout the summer.

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Tentiform LeafminerCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

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Tentiform LeafminerCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Caterpillars – Fruit Feeding

Cherry Fruitworm

(Grapholita packardi)
Damage: Larvae feed in developing (green) blueberry fruit by creating a pinhole entrance in the calyx area. Larvae feed and develop inside one to two berries causing webbing and tunneling, and shriveled areas on fruit. Infested fruit often drop off before harvest, but if not, are difficult to sort out in fruit processing. Larvae exit the fruit in late July or early August, and can contaminate flats with their presence.
Insect: Eggs are small, flat, and oval, and laid singly on the calyx of green fruit. Larvae are pale or pink with brown heads. Larvae exit fruit and look for overwintering sites on trees, and form cocoon, where they will pupate in spring. Adult moths are small, mottled grey and about 5 mm in length, with a wingspan of about 9.5 mm. Hind wings are two-tone, dark closer to body, and pale farther from body. There is one generation per year.
NOTE: Cherry Fruitworm has only been detected in a few BC blueberry fields.

Cherry Fruitworm EggTracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI

Cherry Fruitworm EggTracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI

Cherry Fruitworm EggTracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI

Cherry FruitwormTracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI

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Cherry Fruitworm LarvaKristine Ferris, ES Cropconsult

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Cherry Fruitworm Damage HolesKristine Ferris, ES Cropconsult

Cherry Fruitworm DamageTracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI

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Cherry Fruitworm DamageTracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI-I


Cranberry Fruitworm

(Acrobasis vaccinii)
Damage: Larvae feed in developing green fruit. They enter the fruit from the stem end, so entrance holes can be clearly seen. One larva can destroy three to six fruit Messy feeding sites, with external sawdust-like frass and webbing, are characteristic of fruit damaged by cranberry fruitworm.
Insect: Eggs are white, oval, and laid in the calyx of green berries. Larvae are green with a dark head, about 9.5 mm long when mature. Adult moths are about 12 mm long, dark grey with white 2 triangle markings per wing. Wingspan is about 15 mm.
NOTE: Damage only seen in cranberries in BC, no damage in blueberries.

Cranberry Fruitworm EggTracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI

Cranberry Fruitworm MothTracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI

Cranberry FruitwormTracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI

Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD)

Spotted Wing Drosophila SWD

(Drosophila suzukii)
Damage: Female flies lay eggs in ripening fruit. Larvae feed within the fruit, turning the flesh brown, soft, and leaky. Damage can provide an entry site for infection by secondary diseases. This injury results in unmarketable fruit and economic loss.
Insect: SWD look similar to other vinegar flies. Adult flies are 2-3 mm in length, with red eyes, tan-colored body with darker bands on abdomen. Males have characteristic single spots on each of its wings along the 1st vein and two dark combs on their front legs. Females lack wing spots and leg combs, but are distinguished by a robust, saw-toothed ovipositor (visible under magnification). Larvae are white, and legless, as are all Drosophila larvae.

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SWD FemaleSheila Fitzpatrick

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SWD MaleSheila Fitzpatrick

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SWD On BlueberryCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

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SWD Larva on BlueberryCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

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SWD Larva on BlueberryCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

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SWD Larva on BlueberryCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

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SWD Larva on BlueberryCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

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SWD Damaged BlueberryCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

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SWD Damaged BlueberryCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

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SWD Blueberry DamageCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Sawflies

Sawflies

(Caliroa cerasi)
Damage: Sawflies feed on the underside of older leaves, but rarely cause significant damage.
Insect: Larvae are pale green and shiny with a somewhat hidden black head. Sawflies are 4-7 mm long. They resemble slugs. Sawfly larvae appear in April-May and again in July-August. Adults are small black wasp-like insects that can be seen resting on or flying around plants in June.
Note: Rarely seen in blueberries

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Sawfly Larva & Typical Feeding DamageCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

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Sawfly Larva & Typical Feeding DamageCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

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Sawfly Larva & Typical Feeding DamageCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

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