Caterpillars 22016-10-23T07:54:11+00:00

Alternaria Fruit Rot

Alternaria Leaf Spot and Fruit Rot

(Alternaria spp.)
Symptoms: Leaf spot symptoms appear from March to May. Leaf spots are 1-5 mm wide, grey with a red margin. Fruit rot symptoms appear during fruit ripening. Infected berries become soft and develop a greenish-black mould on the surface.
Disease cycle: This fungus over-winters on twigs of dead branches and debris on the ground. Spores are released during cool, wet weather and are carried by the wind.

Alternaria Fruit Rot Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Alternaria Fruit Rot Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Alternaria Fruit Rot Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Alternaria Leaf Spot and Fruit Rot Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Anthracnose

Anthracnose Fruit Rot

(Colletotrichum acutatum.)
Symptoms: Symptoms appear on ripe and overripe berries. Ripe berries develop a soft, sunken area near the calyx (flower-end) of the berry. Masses of orange spores are visible on the sunken areas of the berry.
Disease: This fungus over- winters on live twigs, flower buds, dead twigs and debris on the ground. Spores are released during warm, wet weather, and spread by splashing rain onto blossoms and green berries. Infections on young berries remain latent until fruit ripening.

Anthracnose Fruit Rot Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Anthracnose Fruit Rot Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Anthracnose Fruit Rot Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Anthracnose Fruit Rot Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Anthracnose Fruit Rot Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Anthracnose Fruit Rot Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Aphids

Aphids

(Ericaphis fimbriata)
Damage: Several species of aphids colonize blueberry bushes. However, this is the most important species. Aphids spread Blueberry scorch virus, but rarely cause direct crop damage. Aphids secrete sticky honeydew which can accumulate on leaves and fruit. Black sooty mould can develop on the honeydew.
Insect: Nymphs and wingless adults are small, 1-2 mm long, yellow, green, orange, or pink. Winged aphids are usually black and 2-3 mm long. Aphids are found on the underside of leaves and on new shoot tips, from March to September. The first generation of winged aphids emerges in early May. Aphid populations are highest in June and July. They overwinter as eggs on blueberry plants.

aphid-colony Aphid Colony Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Aphid Colony Adult Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

aphid-nymphs-and-winged-adults Aphid Nymphs And Winged AdultsCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

wingless-adult-giving-birth-to-live-young Wingless Adult Giving Birth To Live Young Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Mummified Aphids Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Aphid damage in blueberry1 Aphid And Gall Midge Damage In Blueberry Carolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Armillaria Root Rot

Armillaria Root Rot.

(Armillaria spp.)
Damage: Infected bushes have small, pale leaves and die within 1-2 years. At the late stages of disease, entire foliage turn brown. Root-like fungal growth (called rhizomorphs),dark brown to black when matured or pale white when young, can be found attached to roots or crown or under the bark. White fungal mats can be seen on the stem underneath the bark when scraped away at the crown just below or at the soil line.
Disease cycle: This fungal disease is common on trees and woody species, and may attack blueberries planted on recently cleared of forest land. Wood bark and other woody plant materials used as planting medium for blueberry propagation or as mulch in the field may harbour the fungus.

Armilaria Root RotSiva Sabaratnam, BCAGRI

Armilaria Root RotSiva Sabaratnam, BCAGRI

Armilaria Root RotSiva Sabaratnam, BCAGRI

Armilaria Infected CrownSiva Sabaratnam, BCAGRI

Armillaria RhizomorphsSiva Sabaratnam, BCAGRI

Rhizomorph Of Armilaria On Infected CrownSiva Sabaratnam, BCAGRI

Bacterial Blight

Bacterial Blight.

(Pseudomonas syringae pv syringae)
Damage: Symptoms appear from bud break to bloom. Brownish-black discoloration appears on one-year-old stems, often near branch tips. Buds and flower clusters within or adjacent to the infected stem turn brown and die. There is a distinct margin between diseased and healthy tissue on the stem.
Disease cycle: This bacterial disease is very common and spreads under cool, wet weather in the spring and fall. It often becomes severe on plants that have been damaged by frost.

Bacterial BlightCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Bacterial BlightCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Bacterial BlightSiva Sabaratnam, BCAGRI

Bacterial BlightSiva Sabaratnam, BCAGRI

  Bacterial Blight Factsheet

 

Blueberry Leaf Rust

Blueberry Leaf Rust

(Naohidemyces vaccinia)
Symptoms: Appear in late summer. Brown spots on the upper surface of leaves. Powdery orange-yellow pustules on the underside of leaves. May caused early defoliation.
Disease cycle: In northern climates, Blueberry leaf rust uses hemlock as its alternative host. With the Fraser Valley’s warm climate, the disease might not need hemlock to complete its life cycle.

Blueberry Leaf Rust

Blueberry Leaf Rust

Blueberry Leaf Rust

 

Blueberry Leaf Rust Factsheet

 

Blueberry Mosaic

Blueberry Mosaic

Damage: Leaves are brightly coloured with red, yellow and green mottling. One or more branches may show symptoms on a bush. Yield is reduced, and berries are of poor quality.
Disease: The cause of the disease is not well understood.

Blueberry Mosaic

Blueberry Mosaic

Blueberry Mosaic

Blueberry Mosaic

Blueberry Scorch Virus (BIScV)

Blueberry Scorch

Blueberry scorch virus BIScV
Damage: Flowers and/or leaves blight and die, while stems remain green. Yield is reduced. Some varieties, like Bluecrop, may not show blighting but leaves may turn slightly yellow and yields will be reduced. Symptoms appear at blossom and remain visible from spring to mid-summer.
Disease: BIScV is spread by aphids and infected propagating plant materials. The virus can spread rapidly in the field. Bushes infected with this disease will never recover.

scorch1 Blueberry Scorch VirusCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

scorch2 Blueberry Scorch VirusCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

scorch4 Blueberry Scorch VirusCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

scorch5 Blueberry Scorch VirusCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

scorch6 Blueberry Scorch VirusCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

scorchbush1 Blueberry Scorch VirusCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

scorchbush2 Blueberry Scorch VirusCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

scorchbush3 Blueberry Scorch VirusCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

scorchbush4 Blueberry Scorch VirusCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

scorchbush5 Blueberry Scorch VirusKarina Sakalauskas, BCBC

scorchbush6 Blueberry Scorch VirusKarina Sakalauskas, BCBC

scorchbush7 Blueberry Scorch VirusCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

 

Blueberry Scorch Fact Sheet English

 

Blueberry Scorch Fact Sheet Punjabi

 

Blueberry Shock Virus (BIShV)

Blueberry Shock

Blueberry shock virus BIShV
Damage: Flowers and/or leaves blight and die, while stems remain green. Yield is reduced. Symptoms are nearly identical to Blueberry scorch, but blighting may occur slightly earlier. Symptoms appear at blossom and remain visible from spring to mid-summer.
Disease: BIShV is spread by pollen. Infected bushes will recover in 1-4 years, but will remain infected with the virus. This virus will slowly spread through an entire field.

shock4 Blueberry Shock VirusCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

shock3 Blueberry Shock VirusCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

shock2 Blueberry Shock VirusCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

shock1 Blueberry Shock Virus

Botrytis Blight and Fruit Rot

Botrytis Blight and Fruit Rot

(Botrytis cinerea)
Symptoms: Infected twigs turn silvery and brittle. Infected flowers wilt, turn brown and develop a grey fuzzy mould on the surface. Green berries develop small, soft, purple patches. Ripe berries become soft and develop grey mould on the surface. Symptoms on flowers and berries are present all season, particularly following periods of cool rainy weather. Symptoms on twigs are present year round.
Disease cycle: The fungus overwinters on dead branch tips and debris on the ground. Spores are released in cool, wet weather and are carried by the wind. The fungus may remain latent on the berries until ripening.

Botrytis Twig BlightSiva Sabaratnam, BCAGRI.

2-botrytis-blossom-rot Botrytis Blossom RotCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

3-botrytis-blossom-rot Botrytis Blossom RotCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

4-botrytis Botrytis Fruit RotCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

5-botrytis-fruit-rot Botrytis Fruit RotCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

6-botrytis-fruit-rot Botrytis Fruit RotCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

7-botrytis-fruit-rot Botrytis Fruit RotCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

8-botrytis-fruit-rot Botrytis Fruit RotCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Caterpillars – Fruit Feeding

Cherry Fruitworm

(Grapholita packardi)
Damage: Larvae feed in developing (green) blueberry fruit by creating a pinhole entrance in the calyx area. Larvae feed and develop inside one to two berries causing webbing and tunneling, and shriveled areas on fruit. Infested fruit often drop off before harvest, but if not, are difficult to sort out in fruit processing. Larvae exit the fruit in late July or early August, and can contaminate flats with their presence.
Insect: Eggs are small, flat, and oval, and laid singly on the calyx of green fruit. Larvae are pale or pink with brown heads. Larvae exit fruit and look for overwintering sites on trees, and form cocoon, where they will pupate in spring. Adult moths are small, mottled grey and about 5 mm in length, with a wingspan of about 9.5 mm. Hind wings are two-tone, dark closer to body, and pale farther from body. There is one generation per year.
NOTE: Cherry Fruitworm has only been detected in a few BC blueberry fields.

Cherry Fruitworm EggTracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI

Cherry Fruitworm EggTracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI

Cherry Fruitworm EggTracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI

Cherry FruitwormTracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI

5-cherry-fruitworm-larva Cherry Fruitworm LarvaKristine Ferris, ES Cropconsult

6-cherry-fruitworm-damage-holes Cherry Fruitworm Damage HolesKristine Ferris, ES Cropconsult

Cherry Fruitworm DamageTracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI

8-Cherry Fruitworm Damage Cherry Fruitworm DamageTracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI-I


Cranberry Fruitworm

(Acrobasis vaccinii)
Damage: Larvae feed in developing green fruit. They enter the fruit from the stem end, so entrance holes can be clearly seen. One larva can destroy three to six fruit Messy feeding sites, with external sawdust-like frass and webbing, are characteristic of fruit damaged by cranberry fruitworm.
Insect: Eggs are white, oval, and laid in the calyx of green berries. Larvae are green with a dark head, about 9.5 mm long when mature. Adult moths are about 12 mm long, dark grey with white 2 triangle markings per wing. Wingspan is about 15 mm.
NOTE: Damage only seen in cranberries in BC, no damage in blueberries.

Cranberry Fruitworm EggTracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI

Cranberry Fruitworm MothTracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI

Cranberry FruitwormTracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI

Caterpillars – Leaf Feeding

Bruce Spanworm and Winter Moth

(Operophtera bruceata & O. brumata)
Damage: Caterpillars feed in early spring on flower clusters, green berries and leaves.
Insect: Pale green caterpillars up to 18 mm long with two pale lines running the length of their body, with a pale green head. Moths fly in late fall and winter and lay eggs on blueberry plants. Larvae hatch in March and begin feeding inside buds and flower clusters until late May. They drop to the soil to pupate in June, where they remain until moth emergence after October. There is one generation per year.

Oblique Banded Leafroller

(Choristoneura rosaceana)
Damage: Caterpillars feed in early spring and mid-summer on flower clusters, green berries and leaves.
Insect: Small caterpillars overwinter on plants and begin to feed in early April inside rolled leaves or webbed flower clusters. Caterpillars are also present in July-August. Caterpillars grow to 25 mm in length, are pale green with black heads, and stay close to their protective leaf rolls when feeding. Larvae pupate within the leaf rolls, and tan coloured moths emerge in June and again in August. They can be seen fluttering around the bushes or resting on leaves. There are two generations per year.

Eye-spotted Budmoth

(Spilonota ocellana)
Damage: Caterpillars feed in early spring on buds, flower clusters, green berries, and leaves.
Insect: A dark brown caterpillar with a black head, 9 to 14 mm long. From March to May, caterpillars are found feeding inside flower clusters and leaves secured with webbing. Moths fly in June-July. Summer larvae feed on leaves and developing fruit from July to September, before overwintering as partially grown larvae. One generation per year.

European Leafroller

(Archips rosanus)
Damage: Caterpillars feed on flowers and developing fruit and leaves in spring.
Insect: Similar size and appearance as Oblique banded leafroller (OBLR), but European leafroller has only one generation per year whereas OBLR has two generations. European leafroller larvae appear later in the summer than OBLR. Moths fly in June-July and lay overwintering egg masses.

Leaf Feeding CaterpillarCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding CaterpillarCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding CaterpillarCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding CaterpillarCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding CaterpillarCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding CaterpillarCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding CaterpillarCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding CaterpillarCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding CaterpillarCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Leaf Feeding Caterpillar

Caterpillars – Tent Forming

Forest and Western Tent Caterpillars

(Malacosoma disstria & M. californicum)
Damage: Fully enclosed tents or silken mats are built from May to June by groups of hundreds of caterpillars. Entire branches or bushes can be defoliated.
Insect: Tent caterpillars are covered in long hairs and grow up to 30 mm long. Both species have significant markings such as blue lines and white diamonds along the back of Forest Tent Caterpillars. Western tent caterpillars are mostly orange and black with pale blue marks along the back. Tent caterpillars feed together in large groups until pupation in mid- summer. Moths are tan coloured, fly in summer, and lay overwintering egg masses on tree branches. Egg masses are protected by grey-black spongy material, which looks and feels like grey Styrofoam. One generation per year.

western-tent-2 Forest and Western Tent Caterpillars Tracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI

western-tent-1 Forest and Western Tent Caterpillars Tracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI


Fall Webworm

(Hyphantria cunea)
Damage: Small webbed tents appear at branch tips in early July. These tents contain hundreds of caterpillars. The tents and caterpillars grow in size and can encompass an entire bush by September. Entire branches are defoliated inside the webbing.
Insect: Caterpillars are commonly light coloured with long pale hairs. Caterpillars have black spots and dark heads, and the larvae body may darken with age. Larvae grow up to 35 mm in length. Moths are mostly pure white, and fly in early summer. They lay egg masses on the underside of leaves and cover with hairs. Eggs hatch within a week. Once larvae are mature, they crawl to protected areas on the tree or in leaf litter, to overwinter as a pupae. One generation per year.

fallweb3 Fall WebwormCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

fallweb4 Fall WebwormCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

fallweb2 Fall WebwormCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

fall-web1 Fall WebwormCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Crown Gall

Crown Gall

(Agrobacterium tumefaciens)
Damage: Hard, tumour-like growths are present on the roots, crown, or stems. Individual branches or entire plant may be killed.
Disease cycle: Crown gall is caused by a bacterium that enters the plant through wounds. The disease can be spread by infected pruning shears, farm equipment or plant wounds.

Crown Gall On Blueberry RootsSiva Sabaratnam, BCAGRI

Crown GallSiva Sabaratnam, BCAGRI

Godronia Canker

Godronia Canker

Godronia cassandrae ( Fusicoccum putrefaciens).
Damage: Small (2-7cm), reddish brown, oval-shaped lesions develop on one-year-old stems, usually at the base of a bud. Older infections girdle stems and die, and the leaves turn reddish-brown, mostly attached to the stem e, giving a “flagging” appearance. Lesions may take 1-3 years to fully girdle and kill individual branches
Disease cycle: This fungus over- winters on canker lesions on stems. Spores are released from young canker lesions during cool, wet weather in the spring but mostly in the fall and cause new infections.

Godronia Canker Young LesionsSiva Sabaratnam, BCAGRI

2-godronia-canker-2 Godronia CankerCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Godronia Canker Old LesionsSiva Sabaratnam, BCAGRI

Godronia Canker FlaggingCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Godronia FlaggingCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Godronia Canker In A Duke FieldSiva Sabaratnam, BCAGRI

 

Godronia Factsheet English

 

Godronia Factsheet Punjabi

 

Midge

Blueberry Gall Midge

(Dasineura oxycoccana)
Damage: The top 5-10 mm of new shoot tips turn black and shrivel. This can result in excessive branching of new growth.
Insect: The adult is a small fly which lays its eggs on new shoot tips. Larvae emerge and can be found clustered inside the tips. They are 1-2 mm in length, clear, white or orange maggots with no legs or markings. Damage occurs from June through September. Larvae feed on new growth by piercing plant tissue, resulting in distortion, blackening, and death of new tips. Midge overwinters as pupae in the soil. There can be up to 4 overlapping generations during the growing season.

midge1 Midge DamageCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

midge2 Midge DamageCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

midge3 Madge DamageCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

midge4 Midge DamageCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Midge LarveCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Mites

Two Spotted Spider Mite

(Tetranychus urticae) Damage: Spider mites feed on the underside of the leaves, and can be found on older leaves as well as near the shoot tips. Lightly infested leaves become speckled; heavily infested leaves become bronzed and covered with webbing. Spider mites are a sporadic pest in blueberries and are rarely seen in most fields. Mite populations build up during the heat of summer, and can be more prevalent in hot dry locations. Mites can reside on weeds within blueberry fields. Pest: Two-Spotted Spotted spider mites are yellowish-greenish with two dark spots on the back. They vary in size from near microscopic to clearly visible. These mites overwinter as orange females in the soil near the plant.

spider-mites-on-blue Spider Mites On Blueberry LeafCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult
spider-mites-on-blueberry Spider Mites and Eggs On Blueberry LeafCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult
3-spider-mite-damage Spider Mite DamageCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult
spider-mite-damage Spider Mites DamageCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Mummy Berry

Mummy Berry

(Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi)
Symptoms: Individual leaf and flower clusters turn brown and droop. A bluish-grey fuzz is visible on the petiole or flower stem. Infected berries become pink and puckered, then turn hard, white, and shrivelled and drop to the ground late in the season.
Disease cycle: This fungus over- winters in infected berries (mummy berries) that fell to the ground the previous season. Primary infection occurs when spores (ascospores) are released from the sprouting apothecia (fruiting structures of the pathogen) from mummy berries in early spring and blown onto new flower and leaf buds. Secondary infection occurs when bees carry the secondary spores (conidia) from primary infections to open blossoms.

Mummy Berry AphoteciaCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Mummy Berry AphoteciaCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Mummy Berry AphoteciaCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Mummy Berry Fruit Infected LeafCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Mummy Berry Leaf InfectionCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Mummy Berry Leaf InfectionCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Mummy Berry Leaf InfectionCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Mummy Berry Leaf InfectionCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Mummy Berry Flower InfectionCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Mummy Fruit InfectionCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Mummy Berry Fruit InfectionCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Mummy Berry Fruit InfectionCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Mummy Berry Fruit InfectionCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Phomopsis Canker

Phomopsis Canker

(Phomopsis vaccinii).
Damage: Individual branches turn reddish-brown, called “flagging”, and die, and leaves may fall soon after Large (5-15 cm), reddish brown, oval-shaped lesions can be seen on 1-3 year-old stems.
Disease cycle: This fungus over- winters on cankers on stems. Spores are released from cankers during periods of rainy weather and splash onto adjacent stems mostly in the spring. Lesions may take 1-3 year to fully girdle and kill individual branches.

Phomopsis Stem Canker On DraperSiva Sabaratnam, BCAGRI

Premature Fruit Drop

Premature Fruit Drop

Damage: Flowers and leaves have red streaking during bloom. Berries begin to develop, reach 3-5 mm in size and then prematurely turn blue and drop. Infected bushes stand taller than neighbouring bushes as they have no fruit. Symptoms have only been noted on Bluecrop.
Disease: The causal agent of this disease is not well understood.

Premature Fruit DropRobert Martin, USDA-ARS

Premature Fruit Drop Leaf ReddeningRobert Martin, USDA-ARS

Premature Fruit DropRobert Martin, USDA-ARS

4-premature-fruit-drop-unhealthy-vs-healthy-bush-2 Unhealthy vs Healthy BushRobert Martin, USDA-ARS

Premature Fruit Drop Height DifferencesRobert Martin, USDA-ARS

Root and Crown Rot

Root and Crown Rot

(Phytophthora cinnamomi).
Damage: Patches of bushes in a field look weak, have small yellow leaves, and few blossoms or berries. Infection often occurs in low areas of the field with poor drainage. Roots are soft and brown, may lack feeder roots.
Disease cycle: This fungus-like organism thrives in warm, wet soils.

Root RotSiva Sabaratnam, BCAGRI

Root Rot DeclineSiva Sabaratnam, BCAGRI

Sawflies

Sawflies

(Caliroa cerasi)
Damage: Sawflies feed on the underside of older leaves, but rarely cause significant damage.
Insect: Larvae are pale green and shiny with a somewhat hidden black head. Sawflies are 4-7 mm long. They resemble slugs. Sawfly larvae appear in April-May and again in July-August. Adults are small black wasp-like insects that can be seen resting on or flying around plants in June.
Note: Rarely seen in blueberries

sawfly1 Sawfly Larva & Typical Feeding DamageCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

sawfly2 Sawfly Larva & Typical Feeding DamageCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

sawfly3 Sawfly Larva & Typical Feeding DamageCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

Scales & Mealybugs

Lecanium Scale

(Parthenolecanium spp.)
Damage: Scale insects suck on plant sap and can weaken plants and cause twig dieback. Sticky honeydew is secreted from scale insects and may drip onto fruit and leaves. Black sooty mould can develop on the honeydew.
Insect: Females appear as 2-5 mm, oval-shaped, brown bumps attached to one year old stems. Males are small, fly-like insects and are rarely seen. White eggs are present in May-June underneath the scales. Eggs hatch into crawlers (nymphs) that move to the leaves to feed. In late summer, nymphs move back to the stems to overwinter.

scale-insects Scale InsectsCarolyn Teasdale, ES Cropconsult

scale-insects-2 Scale InsectsK. Sakalauskas, BCBC


Grape Mealybug

(Pseudococcus maritimus)
Damage: Mealybugs suck plant sap and reduce plant vigour and terminal growth. They also secrete honeydew, which promotes the growth of sooty moulds that can make fruit unsuitable for the fresh market.
Insect: Adults can be up to 5 mm long, flat, oval shaped, and have a white waxy covering with wax filaments sticking out from circumference of the body. Longer filaments from the posterior end make these mealybugs appear to have “tails”.
NOTE: No common pest in blueberries

mealybug-2 MealybugTracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI

mealybug-black-sooty-mould Mealybug Black Sooty MouldTracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI

mealybugs MealybugKarina Sakalauskas, BCBC

mealybugs-1-3 MealybugKarina Sakalauskas, BCBC

mealybugs-1-2 MealybugKarina Sakalauskas, BCBC

mealybug-3 MealybugTracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI

mealybug-1 MealybugTracy Hueppelsheuser, BCAGRI

Silver Leaf

Silver Leaf

(Chondrostereum purpureum).
Symptoms: Leaves have a silvery appearance. Infected branches have a brown discoloration in the heartwood. Infected plants die within 1-3 years.
Disease cycle: Growth of bracket-like fungus, 5-7 cm wide, emerges from dead branches and pruning wounds at plant base and releases spores. Spores are spread by wind and rain during spring and winter. It can also spread by transplants generated from stem cuttings of infected plants.

Silver Leaf On Phomopsis Infected Draper PlantSiva Sabaratnam, BCAGRI

Silver Leaf DraperSiva Sabaratnam, BCAGRI

3-silver-leaf-in-duke-2 Silver Leaf DukeSiva Sabaratnam, BCAGRI

Slugs & Snails

Slugs and Snails

Damage: Slugs and snails leave slime trails on leaves and fruit. They may become a contaminant in machine harvested fruit.
Insect: Slugs are slimy, legless, slow-moving mollusks of varying colours and sizes up to 10 cm long. Snails are similar in description, but have a protective shell.
NOTE: No common pest in blueberries

snail Snail

slug Slug

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